Chalk, plaster, gesso, gypsum.
A type of hard red wax used to seal documents, letters etc.
Rosin, also called colophony or Greek pitch (Latin: pix græca), is a solid form of resin obtained from pines and some other plants, mostly conifers, produced by heating fresh liquid resin to vaporize the volatile liquid terpene components. It is semi-transparent and varies in color from yellow to black. At room temperature rosin is brittle, but it melts at stove-top temperature. It chiefly consists of various resin acids, especially abietic acid. The term “colophony” comes from colophonia resina, Latin for “resin from Colophon”, an ancient Ionic city.
Flat drawn or machine drawn glass: In 1901-1902 the Belgian engineer Èmile Fourcault (1862-1919) and Èmile Gobbe developed a prototype for a machine for preparing cylinder glass in the family’s glass factory in Dempreny. The machine consisted of several large rollers that vertically drew the glass flat. The dimensions could reach 40 x 11 metres (about 130 x 36 feet).
French chalk: a kind of steatite used for marking cloth and removing grease and, in powder form, as a dry lubricant.
Copal resin from Hymenaea verrucosa (Fabaceae) is found in East Africa and is used in incense. By the 18th century, Europeans found it to be a valuable ingredient in making a good wood varnish. It became widely used in the manufacture of furniture and carriages. It was also sometimes used as a picture varnish. By the late 19th and early 20th century varnish manufacturers in England and America were using it on train carriages, greatly swelling its demand.
Lanonin: a fatty substance found naturally on sheep’s wool. It is extracted as a yellowish viscous mixture of esters and used as a base for ointments.
A silk thread, silk drape.